Skip to main content

Full text of "Foreign crops and markets"

See other formats


Historic, archived document 



Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



CROPS AND MARKETS 




FOR RELEASE 
MONDAY 
APRIL. 2b, 194$ 



VOLUME 58 

sHEEF (Page 370) 



NUMBER 17 

PALM OIL (Page 373) 



CONTENTS 

Page 

COTTON AND OTHER FIBER 

Cotton-Price Quotations on Foreign Markets.... 391 

Cotton Crop bstimate in India Revised Downward..... 392 
Belgian Cotton Consumption Running Below Last 

Season 393 

Greek Cotton Consumption Continues at High Level.,. 394 
Jute Supply Continues Scarce.. 396 

FATS AND OILS 
Exports of Palm Oil and Falm Kernels Increase 

in 1948 373 

World Lard Production Reaches Postwar Peak in 1948 ' 381 

Current Cuban Lard and Tallow Situation 385 

Dominican Republic's 1948 Fats and Oils Production 

Approximates 1947 Level 387 

Philip pine Republic's Exports of Copra and Coconut 

Oil Continued to Increase in March 389 

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND NUTS 

Apple and Pear Crops Larger in Argentina.. 402 

Australian 1949 Raisin and Currant Forecast Lowered 404 
Apple Crop Larger in Switzerland.... ......... 403 

GRAINS, GRAIN PRODUCTS AND FEEDS 
Wheat Agreement Goes to U. S. Senate; Signed by 

41 Countries 378 

Decline in Argentine Corn Exports,.. , 378 

Siam' s Rice Exports Increase Sharply..... 390 

TOBACCO 

Brazil's Tobacco Exports Decline, -i-00 

France's Tobacco Acreage and Production Drop; 

Imports Reduced 401 

Costa Rica's Tobacco Production Larger; Imports 

Decline 402 

TROPICAL PRODUCTS 
Dominican Republic's 1948 Cacao Exports and 

1948-49 Production Lower..., , 398 

Mexican 1948 Coffee Exports Lower; 1948-49 

Production Higher... 399 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
OFFICE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS 
WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 



369 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, No.17 

WHEAT ALLOCA TIONS ENDED 

The following announcement was released on April 19 by the Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: 

"immediate deallocation of wheat and wheat flour was announced today 
by the International Emergency Food Committee of the FAO Council. The 
action was taken by IEFC on the recommendation of its Committee on 
Cereals . The action is effective at once. The functions of the 
Committee on Cereals are also discontinued as of today. 

In recommending immediate deallocation of wheat and wheat flour — 
the remaining cereals in addition to rice under international allocation — 
the Committee on Cereals took account of the approximate balance in 
19l+3-l|.9 between world wheat supplies and import requirements as measured 
by ability to pay for wheat imports. Looking ahead to the I9I4.9-5O 
season, the Committee noted particularly the reserve stocks of wheat and 
coarse grains in North America and the favorable April crop report for 
winter wheat in the United. States of America." 

This action brings to an end the activities of a Committee whose 
efforts were, directed toward achieving an equitable distribution of 
available ' supplies of cereals during the critical postwar emergency period. 



FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS 

Published- weekly to inform producers, processors, distributors and 
consumers of farm products of current developments abroad in the crop 
and livestock. industries, foreign trends in prices and consumption of 
farm products, and world agricultural trade. Circulation of this 
periodical is free, but restricted to those needing the information it 
contains for the conduct of their production, marketing, educational, 
news dissemination and other related activities. Issued by the Office 
of Foreign Agricultural Relations of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 



1 



April 25, 19J+8 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



370 



WORLD SHEEP NUMBERS RISE l/ 

World sheep numbers, estimated at 7^0 million head at the beginning 
of 19^9, continued to increase for the second consecutive year, accord- 
ing to the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. These numbers are 
about 5 million head above the preceding year, but 20 million head, or 
3 percent, below the 1936-l+G prewar average. The generally improved 
grazing conditions and higher prices received for wool, mutton and lamb 
have encouraged expansion of flocks in some of the major sheep -producing 
areas of the world. 

Although sheep numbers increased in many of the important producing 
countries, the principal gains occurred in Australia, Turkey, Spain, 
Rumania, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. These gains more than 
offset the declines that took place in the United States, Argentina and 
China. Notwithstanding the increases, sheep number in Australia and 
most of the European and African countries continue to be below the 
1936-40 prewar average. On the other hand, numbers in the United States, 
the United Kingdom and Rumania are the lowest in many years and are now 
38, 26, and 19 percent, respectively , - below their prewar levels. 

Factors which have affected sheep production varied with the re- 
spective producing countries. Numbers in Canada and the United States 
have fallen off largely because of more profitable alternative agricultural 
enterprises. A similar' situation, together with inadequate market out- 
lets, has caused numbers to decline in Argentina. 

Recovery of sheep numbers in the United Kingdom has been retarded 
by the further development of the dairy industry, which competes for 
grasslands and fodder crops. More favorable grazing conditions and 
increased demand for wool, and to a lesser extent, for mutton and iamb, 
contributed to the sizable increases in Australia, Turkey, Spain and 
the Soviet Union, while the effects of war reduced numbers in China and 
Greece. Generally, inadequate grazing throughout the year and unfavorable 
weather conditions at time of lambing have slowed recovery in other 
sheep -producing areas of the world. 

Further recovery of world sheep numbers will depend principally 
on favorable growing conditions and greater economic returns from 
sheep farming in relation to other farm enterprises. Profitableness of 
the sheep business is the factor that will determine whether producers 
in Canada, Argentina and the United States will expand their flocks. 
In the principal wool-producing countries, the price of wool will be the 
deciding factor as to whether or not herds are expanded, while in other 
countries, the price of mutton and lamb and the domestic need for wool 

will be the determining factor in i ncrea sing numbers. 

This is one of a series of regularly scheduled reports on world agricultural 
production, approved by the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations 
Committee on Foreign Crops and Livestock Statistics. For this report the 
committee was composed of Joseph A. Becker, Chairman, C. M. Purves , 
Elmer A. Reese, Hazel B . Kefauver, Karen J. Friedmann, and Dwight R. Bishop. 

(Table on following pages) 

1/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Office of Foreign 
Agricultural Relations. 



371 



to 



J¥ £h 8 

r— co 



oj ^i- OJ 



i"-\co r^OJ O 
kiud r— so o 



i-4 i^v 

ir\r— o o 
MD OJ co .4- 



■ CO CT.U3 O >^D i 



en ^ o h J- pj c» co in co 
r^i rH c-^t- o cr> oj cri oj 



rH O O 

50 o o 

-H-VJD <TlO rH 



8riNOoonmwBC\jo ocor^-cTNOcrM^ojirMio 
(Tir-O H r-W (7\r^HVO h- o mo !T\!0 W OMA 

*VJ0 r— rH f^VD g} <^ 



1 



8>S 



,O05 -I CO rH O 

rH ir\oj lp>o t^i 



3 



83 



■no cr\ c\h in 



" 0 rH H- 



Hinoo 

r^-MTiOJ rH 



^r> vo i— >.d co i — r— co cr>.=r o .-t f*^M3 w h wvd om 

IT\ r«-\ r( I s — J- C O r- .=}• l^cN ct>i^-oi^h h 



I^.H CTM^W H 



>*>^ ^1 ^ » SSI >^]Sfe >1 



O VO CO CO I CO f 
IT\0J rH r-l rH OJ C 



0) \r\r—r-i 

" J- r- 



oj oj vjd oj >jd t— oj r-o-\ir>i 

F~-rH O rH OM f 



'^"^1 SiSSi "sSSS 



rH OJ 







total. 


: i i :> 

. . . . erj 


o o 
o o 


c 


... a) 

. . . tS 

• • • cd ru 


\m 






" rH ' CO 

eg i o >d -n 

"9 <D O (D -P 


Albania. 

Austria. 
Belgium. 
Bulgaria 




1 
I 


o 6 a t> e 



S H <$ 



i i i i i i i 



IAO Q rH MD OJ O O 
rH IT\Q CTi CO IOQ Q 
r^CnO O l^rH O O 

- - ! 



oj l?\ r^o^ 8 8 

i^ocm i-— oj„-j- oo 

' OJ Oj" ' r-T M ' 
rH N Ni 



O K\Q rH f- O 
KM"— O OJ OJ 



KNVO OJ 



OJ OJ 



81 — O CT> Q VD CT. Q CO^J- 
cr>cAoC5rHinrv-\OLr\rH 

r^vjj- OOJOOJVjdim-^oojvjd 



OOJOOJVJO!*">OOJVJD 
rH VJD 
OJ OJ J- 



OVO LT\CO OrHCOOr-4- 
CA CTv J; r-( OJ CTv OJ O J" O 
OJUJVOCM OJ LTvOJ O r~\"~ 



$ . .5 . 

S rl fl rl O 



III 



III 



3i ft 



^ >. tj 



niii 



'3 



CO 01 (U ^H 



f 



ill 



37& 



o c^o j- 

ITMTiO I 
r^i J" *JD UT\ 



I I I I • 



8£88 

owoo 



to O 
to o 
oj ir- 



oj: 



CM (\i IT 



ITMTVrH rH 



RO rH CO O 
rS O OJ O 



J" OMD 
rH LfM^i 

r-c-> rAOJ 



O O I— CO 
O rH rH OJ 



n OH Lfl 
^-O O O UT\ OJ 



3££ 



ir\ cr> tr\ L^OOJ'd- kmo 



O M W U^vx> CAQ H 
CTN<2j- tO (T\ rH CT.CP 

VDVOtAl^t^OrlON 

Co w r-co mo c^o » 
ir\HU) o oo ion o cr 

OinnUJ rH oj r-; 



■3 8 8 

*-a n vi »-5 o 



£8 

OJ 



o^oi<>OHVD^tnoftirta _ 
Or— to^or— r— r— cr>r-Hr— coojcr 
moj r— cni — cr.us rH c^ovj- o co 



VD OJ H N H U\M 



it\n>ioj oj co lo^h-r^rH r^>rH mcno 

m(\J N\OJ H W Hr- CO rH OJ ^± 







>! > 

rH r^N 




i> O 

g a 


. ..: Dec. 




! '. '. 




land. 
11/. 



rH«s 



OM<- 
Lf\C0 

OJ OJ 



r^.OJ 
OJ CO 

r— 

itnoj* 



•II 



W)rH Cfl -H rH 3 



PS 



: I 



O rj 
S (3= 



1- 

cfl 

O I 

& ' 

III 



<ri O 

is S 



111 



fn <U -3- CA Cfl 

cfl +> t^i O 

© U I CJ) 

>i o O 

C <h r^i CD 

CD o cn tJ 

rH 01 01 rH ^ 

6J) CD rH rH 



•H CU 
+> 01 



2^ 

3 a 



en 

oj Mir 

bJ}rH r 



cfl O 
CD <tH CT< 



I >i cfl 



o il 
■8 

O OJ 



nJkC S. .w cfl 3 

o co pi n ■« 

O ! oi w 
h ■»> J- CD T> 

o ^d- ^ <D r-lJxJ 

<H OJ O 'HilH 

0) Vl M rH| 01 

Cfl •» CD M 

CD CD 03 'o0 C 

CD "S mfi ^ 



^ cr, cfl 

\^rH -P 

r^l oi 

^rH 


rH-3 

o 


1 5 SI 


cembe: 
errril 



o B o O 

TJ iH o 

pj rH -\ - cfl 

rH 01 $ OI CO -H 

s' £ i ill 

fH CvJl^ (h O - C 

cd O oi oi aj 

s . a cs 

co J- cd iHl oj - cn 
o3- ^ +> >s<— oj 

^ CT\ ^ p, ^ ui CPi 

O h H k -1^ (3 U 
OHO \ O Cfl -r! Cfl 

tJ r/> oi-^ f — I i> cd 
cd 3 oi u A 

& CD • f-l +5 

O cfl 0.. Tj 

P S f) .H P S 

O Q rH 01 

0 fl o cn o co 

^ ro £ £ s ^ 

•HO • \. O (3 

« wlo a o 

01 r*-\ O firHI C 



^i z 

OJl Cfl 



Cfl O Cfl 



u -so 

S W \ri _ 

S£ SO 

en cfl cn 

O CD • 01 Pi H ITl 

+3 CD CD r) O - 

\ oi \ K <m UjloSO 

rH j CD LCi CD O rHlrH|'JT> 



373 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 53, No, 17 



EXPORTS OF PALM OIL AND PALM KERNELS INCREASE IN 1948 1/ 

There was a marked increase in the exports of palm oil and palm 
kernels from producing areas in 1948 over those of 1947.* an( i it appears 
that the world production of these important vegetable-oil products from 
the tropics is rapidly approaching the levels of prewar years. 

palm Oil 

Exports of palm oil from the major palm oil producing countries of> 
the world are estimated to have been 429,000 short tons in 194.8, This 
estimate, derived from data received recently, is 4O percent higher than 
the tonnage exported in 1947* It Is less by one-fifth, however, than the 
average quantity exported in the prewar period 1935-39* 

Palm oil exports in 1949 ma y sharply exceed shipments in I948. 
Present indications are that the volume entering international trade in 
1949 may be somewhere between 535*000 and 580,000 tons. This would be 
an increase of 25 to 35 percent over the quantity exported in 19.48* The 
increase in 1949 exports over those of 1948 from Africa may be about 
32,000 tons. Malayan exports may be up 3*000 tons, Indonesia's increase, 
che greatest in both absolute and relative terms, may be somewhere between 
70,000 and 115,000 tons, 

Africa and the Far East are the areas in which exportable supplies 
of palm oil, and palm kernels as well, originate. Africa supplied half 
of the world's palm oil exported in prewar years. The Far East, 
specifically British Malaya and Indonesia, supplied the remaining half. 
During war years Africa became virtually the sole source of palm oil 
when the Japanese occupied British Malaya and Indonesia in 1942 and 
promptly cut off all shipments. African supplies throughout the war and 
part of the postwar period were regulated rigidly by the European 
countries controlling the producing areas. This prevented supplies 
from becoming generally available to world markets. 

The palm oil industry in both British Malaya and Indonesia suffered 
seriously from the 3-y ea ** occupation by the enemy. Exports of palm oil 
from Malaya, which prior to the war was the source of 10 percent of all 
exports, surpassed prewar levels in both 1947 a nd 1948. Such is not 
the case with respect to Indonesia which, in the 1935~39 period, was the 
source of 40 percent of all exports. Since World War II, civil and 
military disturbances, which have postponed complete recovery of the 
palm oil industry in Indonesia, have held production and exports at levels 
far below prewar. Only in those territories presently controlled by the 
Dutch is it known that the oil palm plantations are being rehabilitated 
as quickly as possible. Little is known of the status of the plantations 
in territory controlled by the Indonesian Republicans. Probably not 
until all of the plantations are rehabilitated will Indonesia regain Its 
former prominence as a world source of palm oil. 



1/ Thu palm oil and palm kernel situation is reviewed here in terms of 
exports, rather than production, owing to the availability of more 
complete data regarding the former. A more extensive statement may bo 
obtained from the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



374 



PA1M OIL: Exports from principal producing countries, 
average 1935-39, annual 1946-48 

(Short tons) 



Country of origin." : Average . . . y 



Africa; ; : ' ; : 

Belgian Congo .,.....: 72,450 • 96,658 : 93,624 s 121,680 

Sierra Leone : ' 1,943 : 100 : 2/ : 2/ 

French Equatorial Africa. .. • .'6,314 : : 1,490 ♦ 2,837 1 2,415 

French Camer oons .' 9,75^ : ' 1,7X1 :' 1,128 : 3,000 

Dahomey , :3/21,106 :.' 629 : 783 : ( 

French Guinea >.3_/ ' 2k0 : 2/ : 2/ :4/(6,575 

Ivory Coast :3/ 3,285 : ' 151' r -2 : ( 

French Togo„ . . : ' 1,842 « '10 5 85 1 : 1,197 

Gold Coast : . 549 : 185 : ■• 205: 4.00 

Liberia.,., - : 1.245 : ' ' 495 : 1,237 : 1,300 

Nigeria...,....., s 153^890 j 112,990 • l4L,068 : 184,312 

Angola....-., , .: 3,254 : ' 16,716 13,646 : 11,000 

Portuguese Guinea. : . 950 : ' 1,200 ; 1,069 ; 1,000 

Total Africa : ~276",9 I2 ; "232,334 2^b^W :__ 332,879 ~ 

British Malaya, ; '[ 47,360^7; ' 9^3X2" ": ^O/fJX : 54,6 ""6B~ 

Indonesia § 212,685 ; ; r " ; 1J28 ; 4l,0~4"0 

Total ;, 536 ,957 : : 24 I,643~"; 308,949 ; 428,587 



l/ Preliminary estimate. 

£/ No exports indicated. ' • 

3/ Average 1934-38. ' 

5/ Total French West Africa; colony distribution not available. 

5/ Revised. 



Compiled from official sources. Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations - Fats, Oils and Rice Division, 



375 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 58, ITo . 16 



PALM KERNELS: Exports from principal producing countries, 
average 1935-39, annual 1946-48. 

(Short tons) 



Country of origin 



Average 
1935-39 



1946 



19V7 



Africa: : 

Belgian Congo : 72,450 

Gambia., : 776 

Sierra Leone • 83,775 

French Equatorial Africa.: 14,283 

French Camer oons : 39,^70 

Dahomey : 56,700 

Fr enc h Guinea : 17 , 500 

Ivory Coast • 10,300 

Senegal : 2,700 

French Togo : 13,775 

Gold Coast : 7,987 

Liberia : 10,130 

Nigeria : 369,292 

Angola : 6,678 

Portuguese Guinea : 13,400 

Total Africa ; 719,31 8 

British Malaya : 8,133 

Indonesia : 55~i3V 

Total , ; 771, \b2 

l/ Preliminary. 

2/ No exports indicated. 



57,170 
1,212 

52,600 
8,392 

28,791 

24,300 

8,646 
4,6l2 
1,429 
3,151 
6,667 
974 
310,512 
14,309 
14,560 



53,310 
1,344 
70,532 
10,260 
28,578 
28,344 
13,439 
1,207 

1,122 

5,137 
4,106 

3,939 
35^,341 
14,308 
20,000 



537,325 



I75 



609,670 
5,874 



2/ 



T7W 



537,500 



617,302 



Compiled from official sources. Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations - Fats, Oils, and Rice Division. 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



376 



The principal sources of African palm oil exports are the two colonies 
Nigeria and the Belgian Congo. Their combined shipments in prewar years 
comprised over two-fifths of world exports. 

Nigeria's exports in 1948, half again as large as those of the 
Belgian" Congo"7 are estimated at 184,300 tons. Representing an increase 
of nearly one-third over the quantity exported in 1947* this tonnage 
exceeded the prewar average by one-fifth. Results of efforts by the 
Nigerian Government to increase production in this colony, where by far 
the dominant share of total output comes from wild pe.lms harvested by 
the natives, may contribute materially to an increase in the supplies 
exported in 1949 • Total exports of 200,000 tons are probable. 

Palm oil exports from the Belgian Congo last year totaled' 12,1,700 
tons. This was yO percent more" than The quantity shipped out in 1947> 
and 70 percent over the tonnage exported in 1935-39* I* 1 "the Congo, 
wartime and subsequent efforts to expand production of palm oil through 
plantings on new areas are bringing favorable results, A predicted 
increase in production, 11 percent over last year's- output, probably 
should permit exports in 1949 totaling 138,000 tons. This would be about 
13' percent more than total shipments in 1948. 

Exports from the remaining 10 palm oil exporting countries of 
Africa (see table) totaled' 2b, 800 tons in" 1948. This represents"" a gain 
of nearly one-fourth from the year before when only 21,800 tons were 
exported. In comparison with prewar, shipments in 1948 were only a 
little more than half as large. It is assumed that, as a whole, exports 
in 1949 from the 10 countries indicated will not be materially above 
the levels of last year. Increases in some probably will be offset by 
decreases in others, 

■ Exports from the Far East in 1943 were up more than 80 percent 
from the year before. Shipments from British Malaya last year totaled 
34,700 tons, 8 percent more than the tonnage exported in 1947 » Exports 
in both 1947 aR -d 1948 exceeded the Malayan prewar level. The relatively 
high export levels in the last 2 years are regarded by some authorities 
as a true reflection of the degree to which the Malayan palm oil 
industry has been rehabilitated. Since the palm oil industry is 
situated favorably when compared to other industries in Malaya, it 
appears that exports in 1949 may exceed those in I9I4.8 by as much as 
3,000 tons or approximately 3 percent. 

Supplies of palm oil exported from Indonesia in I948 totaled 
41,000 tons. This abnormally small quantity, though greater than the 
1,728 tons shipped out in 1947* was only one-fifth as great as exports 
in prewar years. Results of intensive efforts to rehabilitate the 
plantations in the unoccupied areas of Indonesia are expected to become 
apparent this year. Estimates of exports In 1949* as ma.de by official 
and trade representatives, vary considerably. It is highly probable 
that Indonesian exports in 1949 rs -y he somewhere between 110,000 and 
155*000 tons, an exceptionally sharp increase over shipments in 1948. 



511 



Foreign Crops and. Llarkets 



Vol. 53, No. 17 



Palm Kernels 

Exports of pain kernels, like palm oil, were considerably higher 
in 191+3 than in 1947* An estimated 711,600 short tons was shipped 
from major producing countries last. year. This quantity exceeded total 
shipments in both 1946 and 1947 oy 15 arL 6 '32 percent, respectively. 
Despite marked increases in postwar exports, shipments in I948 were 
still 8 percent below prewar levels. 

Africa is the source of almost all palm kernels entering world 
trade. - prewar exports from Africa . comprised 93 percent of total ship- 
ments. From I9U6 to 19-1-8 the proportion varied from virtually 100 
to 97 percent. Shipments from the Far Fast - from British Malaya and 
Inaonesia - comprised the small remainder. 

Three colonies - Nigeria, the Belgian Congo, and Sierra Leone - 
normally supply the bulk of the kernels exported from Africa. In I948 
nearly four-fifths of the total quantities exported from that continent 
came from the above three colonies. 

■ Exports of palm 'kernels from Nigeria in 1943 totaled 382,800 tens. 
This quantity, the greatest in any of the postwar years, exceeded ship- 
ments in 1947 by 8 percent and was 4 percent above the prewar average. 

Shipments of kernels 'from the 3elg ian Cong o in I946 comprised a - 
total of 91*900 tons. This represents a sharp increase, nearly 75 per- 
cent, over the quantity exported in 1947 and was more than one-fourth 
above the* prewar export level. 

Sierra Leone's exports of palm kernels in 1948 are estimated 'at 
70,600 ton's. Virtually the same as the quantity exported in 1947* the 
volume in I948 was loss than the. average of pr o'.-ar years by one-sixth. 

The combined exports from the regai ning 12 palm kernel exporting 
countries in Africa (seo table) totalecT"l4b,200 tons IrTH^T, TTrTs~was 
12 percent greater than the quantity shipped in 1947 but was below the 
prewar average by nearly one -fourth. 

Total' shipments of kernels from the Far Fact - British Malaya and 
Indonesia - are of minor importance when compared with those from Africa. 
Shipments from the Far East comprised 3 percent of the total volume 
exported in 1946 and in prewar years they comprised 7 percent. 



(Continued on Page 404) 



378 



COMMODITY DEVELOPMENTS 



GRAINS , _GRAIN PRODUCTS A ND FEEDS 

WHEAT AGREEMENT GOES TO U.S. 
SENATE; SIGNED BY 1+1 COUNTRIES 

The recently negotiated International Wheat Agreement, signed by 
I4I countries as of the closing date of April 15, has been submitted to 
the United States Senate for consideration as a treaty. 

At the conclusion of the International Wheat Conference 1+2 countries 
(37 importers and 5 exporters) indicated an intention of signing the 
Agreement. All of these countries except Paraguay had signed by the 
closing date. At the time of signing, however, Peru reduced its 
guaranteed purchases from 200,000 to 1.50,000 metric tons. 

The net effect of these two actions is a reduction of 110,000 
metric tons — 1+ million bushels — in the total guaranteed purchases of 
I4.56 million bushels involved in the Agreement. Unless other participat- 
ing Importing countries are willing to raise their guaranteed purchases 
by an offsetting amount, It will be necessary to make a slight reduction 
in the guaranteed sales of exporting countries. Final adjustment of the 
quantities involved will be made at the July meeting of the International 
Vfheat Council, provided a sufficient number of participating countries 
have formally accepted the Agreement by that time. 

DECLINE IN ARGENTINE 
CORN EXPORTS 

Corn exports from Argentina during the crop year just ended in 
that Southern Hemisphere country were 28 percent lower than last year 
and still far below the average prewar shipments, according to latest 
unofficial reports available to the Office of Foreign Agricultural 
Relations. Corn exports declined from 2, 853*000 metric tons (112,316,000 
bushels) in I9I+7-I+8 to 2,01+0,000 metric tons (80,319,000 bushels) in 
191+8-1+9. This compares with the 193U-35/l938~39 prewar average of 
6,398,000 metric tons (251,858,000 bushels). Thus, exports of this feed 
grain during the past year are only 32 percent of the average prewar 
shipment s . 

Except for most recent years, Argentina has l©ng been the world's 
leading exporter of oorn and a primary source of supplemental feeds for 
the large numbers of livestock in northwestern Europe. The Argentine 
corn crop year extends ' from April 1 until March 31 of the following year. 

Of the countries to which Argentine corn was shipped during the 
past crop year, the United Kingdom alone accounted for 1,221,000 metric 
tons (1+8,072,000 bushels) or 60 percent of the total. (See table). 
Other important destinations included Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, 
Spain, France, India and Italy. 



379 



h n k^-vc -21 O w o w^o^o o to ff.o 
rH H H 



■> to o-\ ro »^ 

r 1 1 1 ^ ' 1 vo* 1 ^ ' 1 1 1 1 ' 



CM 

• I 11 



o 

• m 

CM CO 
rH 


■ * 

rH 


S3 

■5 

rH 


O 6C 
O v£> 


O 


O 60 

!?> o~ 


rH V.O 
CM 


' u$ ' 


ON 


60 




O tr. 



CT> » 

° 60 § 
t£ J" O 
0) CTs p 

Sh H VXI 

+3 ^ . 

e cS CM 
o S - 
. 1 CJ 

>. rH 
,£) -H <H 
^ O 

m p. 
-p «< w 

r. 0 
O h O 



O tn © 

o o e 
3 E 



£ 8 



60 

o 



I I 1 1^ I 



3 



cv r^- p o 

60 VC C\J C 
-3 rH O 



rH rH roi 



IT • I I I I I t 



rH CTN 



' ^* 1 oT ' ' ' 1 

o 



60 

CX< rH 60 



CV ITI r- 
CT\J- OA rH 

*a 



60 CVJ 

II -111 -II 

S3 • 2 



Q f^^- I^M O CVJ 

U\Jt <J\-T~- r — Q 

JU) o^Oin O 60 

..... I • . 

CT> C\J «=f- rH lf \ l*> 



O J- -3 

-=r ITv .CM 

mo -a 

1 T ' « 



K> O O CM 
^ CM OH 

CM h-60 l*A 

so" r-- ' cn r-T ' r«* 

CM rH rH 



I I - r i i i i i 



cm 

CM CV 



r^S 
<U iH 

PQ pa 



>. 9 



fl ( t> I « 



C p 

p.. W 



0) "H 



J3 

3 +» t> 
H 4 W ri 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



380 



Argentina: Corn Exports, by months, average 1934-35 to. 

1938-39, annual 1945-46 to 1948-49 l/ 

(1,000 metric tons of 2, 204.6 pounds each) 



Month 


: Average 

1934-35 to 
: 1938-39 


1945.46 


1946-47 


1947 -48 


1948-49 


July 


616 


48 


341 


115 


205 


Augus t „ 




3^ 


307 


5 • * iL ¥* 




September 


710 . 


34 


233 


J 195 


126 


October. 


649 . 


22 


190 


339 


' 273 


November 


586 


65 


184 


495 


333 


December 


507 ; 


109 


87 


' 488 


' 252 


July -December . .... 


3,692 


312 


1,342 


1,789 


1,361 


January 


498 


110 


104 


314 


226 


i t Ji Udi ,y. ........... 


JH- L 


"I lis 




101 
. -j u1 . • 


8P 


March 


276 


106 


96 


207 


42 


April 


429 


116 


125 


105 




Ma y. ........ ........ 


J J J 


p^p 


YD 


ft! 
O J. 




June , 


551 


148 


• 47 


, 133 




January-June 


2,648 


857 


543 


1,141 




July -June 


6,340 : 


1,169 ' 


1,885 


' 2,930 : 





l/ Official data prior to June 1948, unofficial trade statistics for period 
June 1948, to date. 



381 



Foreign Crops -and Markets 



Vol. 5c, Ho. 17 



The average monthly shipments of corn from Argentina from April to 
August I9I+8 were 35 percent higher than in the corresponding months of 
191+7 . During September to .March l^l^-h9t however, these shipments 
averaged 1+3 percent lower than the saiue period in the previous year. 
The net effect, of course, was that the total I9I+8-I+9 shipments were 
28 percent lower than in I9I+7-I+8. This falling off of Argentine exports 
reflected, in part, the news of extremely good prospects for the United 
States' corn crop. The. possibility of lower prices for corn combined 
with increased export availabilities from the .-United States also contributed 
to the decline. : 

March 191+9 shipments of corn -from Argentina totaled only 20 percent 
of the corresponding figure a year ago, and were the smallest for any 
month since October 19^5* * ... 

The year of highest exports of corn from -Argentina was 1931, when 
9»767,000 rmetric tons : ( 3 81+, 5ll+, 000 bushels) were exported. The lowest 
exports during the 20-year period 1920-39 amounted to 2,61+2,000 metric 
tons (10l+, 016,000 bushels) in I-JJQ— a total that has not been exceeded 
since that time. The average exports of corn for the 20-year period 
was 5, 37]+, 000 metric tons (211,51+6,000 bushels). 

(Continued on Page 390 ) 
: FATS Al'iD OILS 

WORLD IARD PRODUCTION REACHES \ 
POSTWAR PEAK IN I9I+8 .!_/ 

World production .of lard, including unrendered pork fats, in I9I+8 
was estimated at 2.1+ million short tons. The output in 19^+8j "the highest 
since the war, was only slightly above the I9I+7 production and .approximately 
13 percent below the production in the prewar years 1935-39 • The 
Western Hemisphere produced almost twice as much lard as Europe. . Lard 
production increased in most countries since the war, but total world 
production was affected mainly by. a 350* 000-ton increase above the 1935 _ 39 
average in the United ■ States . 

The United States is the world's largest producer of lard and in 
I9I+8 produced 1,165,000 tons or 1+9 percent of the world total. The 
postwar peak production was in 191+7 with 1,213,500 tons which was almost 
50 percent above 1935-39 and k percent higher, than production in 191+8. 
An increase in hog slaughtering with an accompanying increase in animal- 
fat production is in prospect for 191+9 • The greater output of both 
lard and 'grease is expected as a .result' of an 8 percent increase in the 
I9I+8 fall pig crop and a probable . increase of 10 percent or more in the 
191+9 spring pig crop. . Lard output in the summer and fall of 191+9 
probably will be substantially greater than a 'year earlier. 



l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Offioc of 
Foreign Agricultural Relations. 



382 



IAKD (including unrendored pork fats): Estimated world production by- 
specified countries, average 1935-39, annual 191+6-1+8 



Continent : Average 

country I ^-39 

: 1,000 
: short tons 
NORTH AMERICA : 

Canada 2J+.7 

Mexico . : 25. 0 

Nicaragua........ : V 

United States...., : 8I5.O 

Cuba 3*0 

Dominican Republic... ; V 

Total 2/....... : 877.7 

Austria : 1+3*° 

Belgium ' 23. 0 

Bulgaria... 11.0 

Czechoslovakia : 1+8.0 

Denmark 19»8 

Finland...., : 3.3 

France :• I32.O 

. Western Germany.. , •: 33 ( - l »0 

Greece : 5*5 

Hungary... 74.5 

Ireland : 7..7 

Italy : 171.0 

Netherlands., 5I+.0 

Norway : 2.2 

Poland (19146 Frontier) : 123.O 

Portugal .* ..: 27. 0 

Rumania 39.0 

Spain , : 73-0 

Sweden ' .: 10.0 

■ •Switzerland...... 1 7.7 

United Kingdom : 19.0 

Yugoslavia 75»0 

Total (excl.U.S.S.R.) 2/.. ; 1,298.7 

U.3.S.R. (Europe and Asia)....: 3U5.O 

ASIA : • 

cEina : . 100.0 

Manchuria : 10.0 

Japan > : 1.2 

Philippine Islands 1.0 

Total 2/ : 122.2 

SOUTH AMERICA , : 

.Argentina 10.0 

Brazil.' 66.0 

Chile '....: 2.3 

Colombia : 10.8 

Ecuador : 1.0 

Total 2/ : 100. l " 

AFRICA : 

Madagascar : 1.0 

Angola i l/ 

Union of South Africa ,J_ 

Total : 1.7 

OCEANIA : 

Australia : 1.6 

New Zealand : .3 

Total 27T 



19U6 



19^7 



1,000 
short tons 



1,000 : 1,000 
short tons : short tons 



Grand total 



21.1+ 
35-3: 
2.0: 
1,069.0: 
; k.0: 
3.0: 



32.2: 
38.7: 
2.1: 
1,213.5: 
5.0: 
3-3: 



1,139.7: 1,299. 



2,7U7.5 



17.0 
11.0 

7.0 
35.0 
13.2 

1.1 
88.2 
85.5 

k.k 
h9.6 
,k.h 
93.2 
ll+.o 

1.0 
35.0 
20.0 
25.0 
22.0 

7.7 

3.6 
13.2 
1+5. o 



60U.1 



80.0 
10.0 
1.0 
1.0 



97.o 



25.0 
63.0 

2.0 
12 .1+ 

3-1 



19.0 : 
12.0: 

8.8: 
1+U.3: 
13-2: 

1.1: 
99.2: 
99.0: 

k.h: 
57-3: 

5»5: 
109.6: 
' 10.7: 

1.1: 
1+1.0: 
20.0: 
30. 0: 
21+.3:. 

7-7: 

3-9 = 
15.0: 
60.0 : 



5.1 



130.0 



100.0 
10.0 
1.0 
1.0 



117.0 



125.5 



1.7 



2,095.6 



22.0 
69.0 
2.5 
11.4 

1+.2 



129.1 



•3 

•5: 

1.0: 



2,384.5 



1/ No basis for estimate. 2/ Includes estimates for the above countries 
Tor which data are not avaiTable and for minor producing countries. 

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Prepared or estimated on the 
basis of official statistics of foreign governments, reports of U.S. 
Foreign Service officers, results of office research, and other informatic 



533 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 58, No. 17 



Canada, in comparison with the United States, has not teen a large 
producer or consumer of lard. Canada's commercial production .for Iv'k 
is estimated at 27,000 tons.. Imports for l^hl <*r^ estimated at 6,900 tons. 
With a carry-over of about 2,000 tons at the beginning and end of the 
year and considering small exports, the domestic consumption will be 
approximately 31,000 tons. Lard production increased by over 50 per- 
cent, or 10,800 tons, from I9J4.6 to 19^7 • The I9I4.8 estimated production 
is down 5,200 tons from the previous year's production. 

Estimates of lard production in Mexico indicate a steady increase 
during the last two decades. In I948, the output was placed at about 
39,000 short tons. This was an increase of nearly 60 percent from the 
prewar average. Imports of lard, which in recent years have come mainly 
from the United States, have teen declining as domestic production has 
increased. 

Brazil is one of the few Latin American countries that have been 
self-sufficient lard producers in recent years. Practically all the 
lard output is in southern Brazil, including the States of Rio Grande 
do Sul, Sao Paulo, Goiaz, Mato Grosso, and Hinas Gorais. In I9U8 
production was estimated at 68,000 tons. Brazilian production averaged 
approximately 66,000 short tons annually during 1935-39* tut decreased 
during the succeeding years. In 1943* "the output was estimated at only 
37,000 tons. By 19^4°, production had nearly reached the prewar output. 
The production of lard in Argentina was 25,000 short tons in I948 
compared with the 1947 output of 22,000 tons. Lard processors were 
required to reserve 2g- percent for the local market at the official fixed 
price, with the balance available for export. Exports in I948 "were over 
twice the prewar average and 25 percent above 1947 exports. The heaviest 
shipments in I948 went to the United Kingdom. 

Lard production in most Latin American nations, apart from Argentina, 
Brazil, and Uruguay, is insufficient to meet local demands. Cuba's lard 
production in I948, about 5,000 tons, was far below domestic requirements 
and there were periods during the year in which there was an acute 
shortage due to lack of sufficient imports. These shortages stimulated 
hog slaughter which helped to supply the Cuban need for fats. Frequently 
whole carcasses, except hams and shoulders, were rendered so that the 
producer could take full advantage of the high lard prices resulting from 
the shortage. Cuban imports in 1947 were 39,600 tons, over twice the 
prewar average imports. Production of lard in Colombia in I948 was 
estimated at 11,500 tons. Imports were kept at a minimum by government 
import controls. Production of lard in Chile is estimated at about 
2,500 tons annually, which almost meets domestic requirements. Lard 
production in Ecuador of h,.,200 tons in I948 was an increase from 3*100 
tons in 1945 c - n d production in 1949 i s expected to be at or above the 
level of last year, 

European output of lard and unrendered pork fats has increased 
slowly but steadily since the end of the war, but is still far below the 
prewar level. The estimated production in Europe in 1948 was 25 percent 
greater than in 1946, but total imports have decreased, largely because 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



534 



©f smaller takings by the United Kingdom* Hog and lard production in 
parts of Europe is not dependent upon any one feed crop, such as corn. 
Grain and potatoes are used more extensively in certain countries, and 
supplemented with skimmed milk and protein feeds in varying degree. 
In most of the European countries, unrendered pork fats are more important 
than "commercial" lard. 

The United Kingdom has had an estimated commercial lard output of 
only 2,200 tons in each of the postwar years, but total hog fats produced 
are almost 15,000 tons. Lard imports have declined from a high of 91,200 
tons in I9I4.5 to 17,200 in 191+7 • The United States furnished most of 
the imports in 191+7, but in I9I+8 Argentina was the large supplier. 

The production of lard and unrendered pork fat in V/e stern .Germany, 
an estimated 99,000 tons, is still far below prewar levels,. but has 
increased slightly from the wartime low. In I9I+8 over 29,000 tons of 
lard were shipped to Germany from the United States. Large quantities 
of foed are being made available to German hog producers to increase 
pork and lard production. This should bring about a greater output 
in 191+9. 

Italian production of lard and unrendered fat has increased over 
15 percent for each of 'the postwar years since I9I+6. French production 
is estimated at about 110,000 tons in I9I+8. Imports into France, 
58,600 tons in I9I+6, were down to 2[j.,500 tons or less than half in 191+7* 
The United States was the main supplier. 

Hog numbers in Hungary bear a relationship to corn production aimilar. 
to that in the United States. Next to bread, pork and hog fat are the 
most important items of diet among the lower income groups. Production 
of lard, which was estimated at 66,100 tons in I9I+8, h as increased each 
postwar year. In 191+7 Hungary exported approximately 57,300 "tons of lard. 
Lard production in Czechoslovakia, which varies generally with the 
supplies of available barley, corn and potatoes, is estimated at 35*070 
tons in I9I+8. When there Is a shortage of feedstuff s, farmers slaughter 
even the suckling pigs, and otherwise reduce their hog population by 
shipping larger numbers to markets. Both Poland and Yugoslavia, 
normally heavy producers of lard and unrendered hog fats, had an output 
estimated in I9I+8 at I4.5, 000 tons and 60,000 tons, respectively. Poland 
imported lard from both the United States and Argentina in 191+8* 

Lard is not important in the edible fat supply of Denmark, which 
exports a substantial part of Its lard production to other European 
countries. Production In 191+2, estimated at 12,000 tons, was about 60 
percent of the average output of prewar years. Lard was not t rationed 
in Denmark during the war, except on a voluntary basis, but it was often 
difficult to obtain. However, in October I9I+8, it was placed under a 
rationing system. 

The Soviet Union has the largest lard output of any country in the 
Eastern Hemisphere'. In I9I+8 production was estimated to have been 
136,000 tons. Production was still far below the prewar level of 31+5*00° 
tons, however. 



385 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 53, Fo. 17 



Lard and unrendered hog fat- product ion data are not available for 
most countries of Asia, Africa, and Oceania. In several Asiatic and 
Forth African countries religious beliefs prevent widespread production 
and consumption of hog lard. Small amounts of lard are usually imported 
for consumption by European-colony groups. 

Hog fat production in China is believed to be large although no 
output statistics are available for that country. It is estimated at 
120,000 tons for I9J4.8 . A large amount of the fat is eaten with the pork 
and used in ivays other than as lard. Lard is produced in Africa in very 
limited quantities in the Union of South Afripa^ Angola, and Madagascar, 
The lard production in Madagascar has decreased* from prewar levels. 
Production lias dropped from approximately 1,000 tons prewar to about 250 
tons in I9I+8. The number of hogs slaughtered in Japan has been increasing, 
but is still far below prewar. Lard production there is estimated at 
about 1,000 tons, 

Australia and Hew Zealand are self-sufficient in regard to lard 
output. Few Zealand production has increased steadily since the war and 
is estimated at 8,000 tons for I9I-J-8. Exports were over 6,000 tons in 
I9I-J.8. Formally, there is not a great demand for lard, because the popula- 
tion prefers other fats and vegetable oils. Hog numbers in I9I4.S, 
estimated 'at 1,300,000 for Australia, and 51+5,000 for Few Zealand were" 
at prewar levels. Australian lard production has remained around li,600 
tons annually, . - 

CURREFT CUBAN LARD AND 
TALLOW SITUATION ' 

LARD 

Cuban lard imports in the January-liar oh period totaled about 37 
million pounds, or an- average of more than 12 million pounds per month. 
These receipts were more than double imports in the comparable period 
of 19^8, and 70 percent larger than in the preceding quarter, October- 
December I9I+8. - . 

All lard received in the last 5 months came from the Uni'oed States. 
A very large part of the imports during the quarter arrived in the last 
6 weeks of the period, after the United States export controls were 
removed. -Prior to mid-February there was a lard shortage in Cuba, and 
many importers had ordered large quantities. They had opened irrevocable 
credits in advance, expecting that only a small part of the total 
quantities, ordered would be licensed for shipment, but hoping, neverthe- 
less, that they would receive generous amounts. Many of the purchase 
contracts were made at prices unjustified by the United ^tates spot 
market quotations. When United States e7.ports were decontrolled, 
exporters rushed te fill all orders on hand and., claim the credits 
deposited in their favor. .As a result, considerable quantities of lard were 
shipped to Cuba in late February and lii arch which cost importers much 
more than lard purchased alter the removal of export controls. 

Consumption of lard daring the first 3 months of. 19-49 is estimated at 22. 
million pounds, or 25 percert more than in the preceding quarter. 
Abundant supplies and greatly reduced prices, espeoially after decontrol 



April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 386 

of exports from the United' States, 'along with the increased seasonal 
demand that accompanies the sugar harvesting season, were responsible 
for the high rate of consumption. Cuban lard stocks, which, on January 1, 
19i)-9 totaled 10.6 million pounds (about ijJ? days supply ),. increased to 
26.5 million pounds' at the end of .March. This is probably enough to 
f ill 'commercial "pipe lines", and provide for all consumption require- 
ments until late June. Large receipts and a declining domestic market, 
where retailers refused to buy more than day-to-day requirements, have 
resulted in warehouse-stocks growing to unmanageable proportions. 
Domestic prices became competitive in mid-February when exports were 
decontrolled." Most of the time they. were below the flexible ceilings 
allowed. Dealers, with stocks previously acquired, have had to sell 
at or below cost to meet the prices of currently arriving lard priced at 
15 cents per, pound, c.i.f. Havana. This lard wholesales generally at 
13 to 20 cents. 

Cuba probably will need to import only small quantities of lard in 
the second quarter because present stocks in dealers * hands are very 
large. The practice of many merohants is such, however,' that if United 
States lard markets become firm or 'turn ."bullish", local importers will 
buy regardless of their stocks on hand. 

• ' TALLOW " 

Tallow production in Cuba in the first 3 months of 19^4-9* a "t 
approximately 3.8 million pounds, was larger than in comparable periods 
of recent years as a result of the relatively greater slaughter of beef 
cattle. The rate of tallow consumption by Cuban soap manufacturers 
during the first quarter was about 2.9 million pounds monthly, or 17 
percent lower than that of the last months of Although Cuban 

manufacturers of soap -have found raw materials in abundant supply during 
the quarter, they -are Iiaving their difficulties, nevertheless. Their - 
soap inventories, which are heavy, were made of expensive materials. ■ 
Meanwhile, demand and prices for soap have dropped lower than had been 
anticipated. . . \ .... , . 

Tallow imports during the first quarter are estimated at 5*7 million 
pounds, or 23 percent more than in the previous quarter. Large quantities 
were imported in February to take advantage of favorable prices, which 
had become low compared to levels existing throughout most of I9I+8. The 
decontrol of United States fats exports permitted free movement of supplies. 
As prices dropped in March to their lowest point since before the war, 
soap makers were forced to curtail purchases to prevent accumulation of 
excessive inventories. The quantity now on hand is estimated at between 
2.8 and 3»0 million pounds or about 1 months 's supply at current consump- 
tion rates. Such a ratio between stocks on hand and amount being used 
is quite 'normal in the Cuban soap industry. 

Tallow prices in Cuba also declined steadily and rapidly during 
the first quarter, prices of imported United States prime tallow foil 
from 13 to li-i- cents per pound c.i.f. Havana in early January to 8 to 9 cents 
in mid-March. Since exports of United States tallow were decontrolled, 



387 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 58, ITa. 17 



Cuban soapmskers have-not had difficulties with exorbitant price demands for 
locally produced soap fats. Prices for locally produced tallow approximat 
the prices of imported tallow, prices are lower than at any time since 
before the war, and now that raw material costs are down, soap prices are 
being cut sharply as manufacturers seek to spur consumption in order to 
increase the volume of their operations. Manufacturers report that sales 
are slow and that it is necessary to cut operations and inventories. 
Despite an increase in the domestic production of tallow in April and 
May, imports* totaling about 5*5 million pounds of scap fats may be 
necessary during the second .quarter. 

CUBA: Monthly imports of lard, inedible tallow and grease; 
average i943~46, and annual 19li7-49« l/, 



Lard 



Average : 
1943-46 : 



1947 



Short : Short 
t ons : t ons 



19U3 



Short 
t ons 



19U9 



Short 
tons 



Jan. 


i 3,032: 


4,328 


336 


3,684 


263 


. " 200 


263 


753 


Feb. 


3,033: 


3*19** 


: 2,876 


8,250 


52 


1,022 


1,419 


1,543 


March 


2,351: 


1,515 
1,949 


5,141 


.2/ 6,600 


411 


876 


1,493 


2/ 550 


April 




1,174 




772 


562 


U06 




May 


2,474: 


5,206 


4,62o 




1,60Q 


1,273 


2,212 




June 


3,008: 


2,326 


3,366 




786 


1,632 


647 




July 




2,968 


3,510 




530 


1,178 


1,144 




Aug. 


3,359: 


4,290 


4,577 




1,010 


1,660 


1,081 




Sept. 


3,399: 


1,727 


i,-767 




737 


580 


732 




Oct. 


2,313: 


.4,742 


1 , 269 




1,060 


1, l60 


313 




Nov, 


2,U29: 


5,019 


5,o49 




1+06 


924 


6 oi+ 




Dec. 


i+,322: 


■ 2,359 


4,379 




977 


270 


1,315 




Total 


37,56o! 


39,623 


38,320 




8,664 


11,537' 


11,657 





Inedible Tr-llow and Grease 



Average 
1943-4* 



Short 
tens 



1947 



Short 
cons 



1943 



Short 
tons 



1949 



Short 
tons 



l/ Revised data. 
&/ Estimated. 

Source: American Embassy, Havana. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC'S 1948 FATS AND OILS 
PRODUCTION APPROXIMATES I9U7 LEVEL 



Production of oleaginous materials in the Dominican Republic in 
1948, with the exception of peanuts, continued at approximately the same 
level as in 1947, according to a report from the American Embassy, Ciudad 
Trujillo. 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



3S3 



The peanut crop reached a record of 10,200 short tons compared with 
the former peak outturn of 10,020 tons in 1 9*4.5 and almost 9,000 in I9I4.7. 
During I9U8 the Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Colonization began 
a plo.nting campaign to increase the area of peanuts. The program met 
with little success, however, as the actual area planted (1^1,210 acres) 
was less than that of the year before ( Z4.3 , 14.OO ) • Growers reportedly lacked 
enthusiasm to expand acreage because of the lack of a price increase 
incentive and the inexperience in growing a crop little known by many 
farmers. Higher yields in I9I+8 than in 1947 were the result principally 
of more favorable growing conditions and, to a lesser extent, to increased 
use of mechanized equipment (tractors, plows, and harrows loaned by the 
peanut oil factory). 

The Sociedad Industrial Dominicana, the only producer of peanut oil 
in the Dominican Republic, reported an output of 1,740 tons for the year 
19^6, compared with 1,020 tons in 1947 and 1,520 tons in I9I4.6. Practically 
all of the peanut oil produced is sold in the domestic market} the small 
balance is exported. 

Production of coconuts during 194^ is estimated at 17*0 million 
nuts compared with 12.9 million in 1947 ■ Considerable interest in plant- 
ing coconuts has been demonstrated by farmers in several agricultural 
districts during the past year. The area of greatest coconut planting 
and production is around Samana ^ay, although in recent years increasing 
numbers of palms- have been planted near 5 a .n Cristobal and in the Central 
Cibao Valley. Only relatively insignificant quantities, of coconuts are 
exported in nut or shredded form. .Most of the output- is consumed, as 
food or expressed for oil for the domestic soap industry. The 194® 
coconut oil output Is unofficially estimated at 275 tons. 

Sesame has been produced in the 1 Dominican Republic for at least a 
decade, but little enthusiasm has been demonstrated among farmers for 
the cultivation of this crop, .production probably does. not exceed 100 
tons annually, and usually about half of the output is. exported, mainly 
to Puerto Ricoo 

Hog lard, roughly estimated at 3*300 -ons in 1948* is produced 
mainly from rural slaughter. Inedible tallow production is small, and 
supplies to meet the country ' s requirements are imported, mainly from ' 
Argentina. ... 

The Dominican Republic 'produces between 90 an -d 95-percent of its 
total requirements of soap. Output in 1947 amounted. to 5/900 tons. 

Exports of fats, oils, and oilseed are insignificant, and except 
for sesame seed, they represent only a fraction of total production. 
Exports of sesame seed for 194? a ^d 1948 amounted to. 53 a ^d 67 tons, 
respectively. 

The Republic has long been a net importer of fats and oils. Most 
of the tallow requirements are imported and have been supplied in the 
past principally from Argentina the United St-atos, and Uruguay. Lard 
imports have decreased in recent years, with the bulk of the requirements 
furnished by the Government -owned meat packing plant and the peanut oil 
factory. 



389 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 56, No. 17 



PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC T S EXPORTS 0? COPRA AMD 
COCONUT Oil. CONTINUED TO INCREASE IN I.IARCK l/ 

Exports of copra and coconut oil from the Philippine Republic again 
were greater than those of the preceding month. 

Copra exports last month, at 142,150 long tons, were larger by 9 per- 
cent than the 30,655 tons shipped in February. In comparison with exports 
in -arch 1948, however, shipments from the Philippines last month were 
about one-fifth smaller. 

PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC: Copra exports, March 1949 with comparisons 

(Long tons) 



Copra distribution 



Country ~hl 


Average 




Jan. -Tlar 


March 


193F-39 


194 8 2/ 


1949 2/ 


194S 2/ 


1949 2/ 


United States (total).; 
Atlantic Coast 


206,801 
- 


3.64,102 
(61,618) 
(69,320) 
(233,1610 
17,049 
. 100 


54,08l r 
(10,297) 
(10,652) 

(33,135) 
1,450 
- 


26,760 

( " ) 

(6,428) 

(20,332) 

3,500 

- 


20,690 

( " ) 

(4,929) 
(15,761) 

450 








_ 


Llexico : 

Panama Canal Zone 
Panama, Republic of...: 


7,260 
- 


- 

707 
1,357 

3, 860 
6,000 


- 

320 

: : / 209 


_ 


I 




- 


1,133 
















10 
6,025 

24,589 
7,309 
4,079 

28,415 


1,000 
26,536 
65,912 
17,250 
21,900 
3,944 
9,276 
31,749 
4,740 
1,000 

24,339 




1,000 

1,700 

3,900 

1,500 




Denmark. » • * .»: 


5,000 
15,407 
7,000 
6,706 
1,050 
■2,1400 
1,500 
1,000 


2,000 
8,900 
14,086 
2,712 


Bizonal Germany.......: 

Italy... 

Netherlands 




91 


12,500 

2,478 


1,500 
1,000 












1,047 


















1,271 


1,443 








Union of South Africa.: 


8,758 


0/11,350 


1^21+ 
6,100 




712 
100 








299,838 


625,630 


104., 583 


53,338 


££,150 



1/ Declared destination. 2/ "prsl iiainary • 
3 ource : American Emba s sy,~~Llanila . 



l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the office of 
Foreign Agricultural Relations 



April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 390 

Coconut oil shipments from the Republic totaled !_}., 178 tons in March. 
This represents an inorease of slightly more than 6© percent -from the 
2,598 tons exported in February and somewhat less than -60 percent from 
the 2,673 tons shipped out in March the year before. 

GRAINS v GRAIN PRODUCTS AND FEEDS 
(Continued from Page 381) 

SIAM'S RICE EXPORTS 
INCREASE SHARPLY l/ 

Rice exports of ^00 million pounds from Siam during the first 
■'quarter of 1914-9 were up sharply from the million pounds exported in 
the same quarter of I9I4.8. Deliveries during the first week of April, 
continuing heavy, amounted to 97 million pounds as against 27 million 
pounds in the same week the year before. 

Relatively heavy exports and increased purchases from growers thus 
far this sea'son bear out early predictions that a large surplus from the 
19^8 crop would be available for export. The December 1 forecast of 
2,750 million pounds for the exportable surplus is still considered 
reasonable. Current estimates by various Siamese Government and trade 
representatives vary from 1,870 to 3,300 million pounds, 

- ' . SIAM,:. Rice shipments, January-March, I9J4.9 



' . with . comparisons 

■ ■ ' r ~" ^ ur ' rJc " r T.7 ' \ . . ', ~ ■„'T~* 

Year : ; January-: April-" : . July-"": October-: Total 

: March : Jun e : Sept embj-jr: Do c omber : , 

: Million : Million : Million •: Million : Million 

♦ pounds : pounds : pounds : pounds : pounds 

Average - 1936-kO.... :'. : ; ■ - - : 2,920 

; 19U7 * : 221: . 283: I34-: 151 : 790 

: 19U6 : . J+2U: 509:."- ' 385: U69: 1,787 

19^9......'. : . 900: : - : - : l/ . 2,75.0 

l/ Export surplus . 



American Embassy, Bangkok. 

Total new-crop (19^4-8-14-9) purchases from producers up to March 20 
approximated 1,870 million pounds, purchases, first made on December 1, 
have averaged over 470 million pounds a month. 



l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Office of 
Foreign Agricultural Relations. 



391 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 53, No. "7 

COTTON AIfp,/>THER_ FIBER 

COTTON -PRICE QUOTATIONS 
ON FOREIGN MARKETS 

The following table &ho$«| certain cotton-price quotations on foreign markets 
converted at current rates of exchange; 

COTTON: Spot prices in certain foreign markets, and the 
U.S. gulf -port average 



Market location, . Date 

kind, and quality 1 19^9 

A lexandria \ 

Ashmouni, Good : ^21 

Ashmouni, F G.F » 

Karnak . Good « tt 

Itarnak, F.G.F. ............ ; ii 

3pm bay ; 

Jarilaj Fine : h 

Broach, Fine . . . , , ; n 

Fampala, East African. ..... j " 

Karachi : 

4F Punjab , S . Q . . Fine : ^_20 

269 F Sind, S.G'. , Fine : a 

289F Punjab, S.G. , Fine . . . : » 

B uenos Aires : 

Type B : ^ 2 1 

lima 

Tanguis, Type 5 : ^_ 2 q 

Pima , Type 1 : n 1 

Re cife : 

Mata, Type h , . 4-21 

Sertao, Type 5 : n 

Sao Paulo . 

Sao Paulo, Type 5. . , : ti 

To rre on . 

Middling, 15/16" „ 

H ouston -Ca lves ton -New ; 

"Or leans a'v . Mid. 15/16 " : it 



Unit of 
weight 



Unit of 



Price in 
f oreisn 



, currency 


■ o*.- 

: currency 


:per pound 


iTallari 
: " 


• 47.40 
: 45.40 
: 67.95 
: 62,70 


: 39.55 
: 37.88 
' 56.70 ; 
; 52.32 


.•Rupee 
: •» 


: 620.00 
: 65O.OO 
: (not 


5 23.86 

: 25.01 
available) 




: 88 . 00 
95.00 
: 98,50 


32.27 
34.83 
36.ll 


:Peso 


3400.00 


45.92 


:Sol 


(not 
(not 


quoted} 
quoted) 


:Cruzeiro 


215.00 1 
205.00 « 


35.37 
33.73 


t tj t 


205.00 : 


33.73 


:Peso ; 


192.00 : 


27.15 ; 



Kan tar 
99.05 lbs 



Candy 
7o4 lbs 



Maund 
82.28 lbs 



Metric ton 
2204.6 lbs, 

Sp quintal 
101.4 lbs. 

Arroba 
33.07 lbs. 



Sp. quintal 
101.4 lbs. 

Pound 



Cent 



xxxxx 



Quotations of foreign markets reported by cable from U.S. Foreign Sen 
posts abroad. U.S. quotations from designated spot markets. 



i 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



392 



COTTON CROP ESTIMATE IN INDIA 
REVISED DOWNWARD 

The 1 94,8-49 commercial cotton crop in India is now estimated by- 
official and private sources at 1,715*000 bales (of 500 pounds gross 
weight), according to a report from Henry W. Spielman, American Consul 
at Bombay. After adding about 225,000 bales for cotton used by home 
industries the total of 1,9^0,000 bales is 11(3,000 less than the latest 
previous estimate published by this Office and 23 percent less than the 
ISkl -US crop of 2,510,000 bales. 

The present cotton shortage in India is becoming a matter of serious 
concern to mill owners and the cotton trade. Representatives of these 
interests are convinced that the 19^8-49 Pakistan crop did not exceed 
850,000 equivalent bales and expect that it will be impossible to obtain 
the 5^-2,000 bales allocated by the Pakistan Government for export to 
India during the year ending August 31, 19^+9 . The Pakistan Government 
recently agreed to sell between 62,000 and 83,000 bales to Japan (no 
previous quota) and has issued export permits for about 335 > 000 bales to 
other countries. Importers in India do not expect to receive during the 
191+8-^9 year more than U00,000 bales of the remaining surplus of 450,000. 
This estimate, based on a reduced crop estimate, may be too optimistic 
in view of domestic requirements of about 150,000 bales. 

Indian Government officials have repeatedly denied rumors of any 
attempt to obtain dollars through any form of loan for the purchase of 
American cotton. Interest in Egyptian cotton has been keen since the 
decline in prices, and sizable orders were placed in recent weeks. 
Importers are also hoping to obtain some cotton from the crops now being 
harvested in South Brazil and Argentina where expenditure of dollar 
exchange would not be necessary. 

In order to conserve the scarce supply of Indian cotton without 
restricting the receipts of dollar exchange, the exportation of cotton 
from India to all soft currency areas has been prohibited since March, 194-9 • 
-Three mills in Ahmedabad were closed early in April awaiting the arrival 
of cotton, and several others had announced that the second and third 
shifts will be stopped after April 15» Transactions on the Bombay spot 
market rarely exceeded 300 running bales a day recently and practically 
no trading was done on the futures market in March. Black market activity 
in seed cotton and to some extent in baled cotton was. reported to be 
increasing in most cotton areas* 

Statistics issued by the Government earlier this year anticipated 
a 191+8-4.9 crop of 1,880,000 bales (of 500 pounds gross) which, when added 
to the carry-over of 1,100,000 bales at the beginning of this season and 
expected imports of 54-0,000 from Pakistan, would make an available supply 
of 3,850,000 bales of Indian and Pakistan cotton against expected 
requirements of 2,940,000 bales during the year. Exports were expected 
to total about 21+5,000 bales and about 325,000 were estimated as unfit 
for mill consumption, leaving a probable carry-over of .about 325,000 bales 
of spinnable cotton of these types on August 31, 1949* The production 



393 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol, 58, IToi 17 



and import (Pakistan) figures were subsequently reduced, as explained 
earlier, so supplies of these types of cotton may be down to less than 
2-month s ' requirements by the time the 1949-50 crop becomes available. 

Imports from Pakistan, soft currency areas, and sterling areas 
(except East Africa and the Sudan) are unrestricted. The Government 
is purchasing East African and Sudan cotton on its own account under a 
joint agreement with the British Government. • These purchases, expected 
to total nearly 250,000 bales together with possible small imports from 
other sources and normal imports of about 250,000 bales together with 
possible small imports from other sources and normal imports of about 
250,000 bales from Egypt, may enable the mill industry to maintain 
operations near the present ' level until the new Indian crop arrives on 
the market-. 

BELGIAN COTTON CONSUMPTION 
RUNNING BELOW LAST SEASON l/ 

Cotton consumption recovered somewhat from the low point of 
November and December, but for the first 6 months of the current season 
(August through January ) consumption is still running II4. percent under 
the same period of the I9I17-U8 season. The domestic textile market is 
reported saturated, and in view of present difficulties in exporting to 
most countries the industry probably cannot expect any improvement soon. 
The 10 to 20 percent decline in cotton goods prices during 194^ reflects 
the weakening of demand . 

Belgian cotton consumption in 19-U7 reached 1+21,000 bales but will 
probably fall below 370,000 bales in I9I+8-L1.9 * In prewar years cotton 
consumption averaged 35^,000 bales annually, of which about I4.O percent 
was used to produce goods for the export market. With textile production 
above prewar levels Belgium must export an even larger share of its total 
production. 

Exports of cotton textiles have boon increasing steadily but have 
not reached prewar levels. This high production, with low exports, end 
slackening of domestic demand have resulted in the accumulation of large 
textile stocks over the past year. In addition, imports of cotton 
textiles .have been above prewar, which has led to strong protests from 
the industry. Protest also has been made to the Belgian Government 
regarding the nonobservance by some countries of the provisions in 
bilateral commercial treaties providing for the export of textile 
products. It is claimed that several countries have not only reduced 
the imports of textiles below the volumes specified under signed agree- 
ments, but that in some cases they ignore them completely due to an 
alleged lack of Belgian francs. 



l/ Based on reports of Jerome T. Gaspard, agricultural Attache, 
Chalmers B. Wood, Third .Secretary, and Ruffin L. Noppe and Florent N. 
Thonus, Clerks, American Embassy. Brussels, Belgium. 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Market 



394 



The Belgian Federation of Textile Industries states that the diffi- 
culties encountered by Belgium in exporting textile products are mainly due 
to the following reasons: 

1* Shortage of Belgian francs in many countries and 
the inconvertibility of, several currencies; 

2. Countries which previously purchased from Belgium 
have now expanded their own textile industries and 
no longer depend on imports to fill their require- 
ment s ; 

3. High tariffs in effect in certain countries which 
hinder Belgian export trade. 

Imports of raw cotton have been increasing and stocks have been 
rebuilt to the normal level of more than 3-months' supply. The increase 
in Imports was due largely to greater arrivals from the United States. 
In January and February of 19^9 about two-thirds or 10*000 bales of 
Belgian imports came from the United States, as compared to only 25 per- 
cent in the 1947-US season. In the first 7 months of the current season 
the United States has shipped 97*000 bales of cotton to Belgium, as 
compared to only 53*000 bales during the entire i9l4.7-i.j_8 season. None 
of these cotton shipments have been financed by the Economic Cooperation 
Administration. Belgium received its first E.C.A. procurement authoriza- 
tion in March l^Lg for 1,000 bales. 

GREEK COTTON CONSUMPTION 
CONTINUES AT HIGH LEVEL l/ 

Cotton consumption in Greece is being maintained at about the 
same level as that of the past 2 years, or about 85,000 bales annually. 
The domestic cotton crop supplies about 60 percent of Greece's raw cotton 
requirements and about I4.O percent is imported, Brazil and Egypt have been 
supplying most of Greece's imports in the past, but imports of United 
States cotton financed by the Economic Cooperation Administration have 
been increasing. In -che first 5 months (August through December I9U8) 
of the current season, Greece imported ij., 90I4. bales from .Bra zil, ^,Jl6 
bales from Egypt, and 89!;. bales from the United States. Imports from 
India and Pakistan, formerly important sources of supplies, have dwindled 
and in the first 5 months of the current season amounted to only 37O bales. 

The United States has authorized the shipment of 20,000 .bales .under 
the European Recovery Program. Most of this is still to be shipped and 
should meet most of the 20,000-bale Import requirement for the remainder 
of the I9J4.8-49 season. 



l/ Based on reports by Jay G. Diamond, Agricultural Attache, and 
Charles R. Tanguy, Third Secretary, American Embassy, Athens. 



395 



Foreign Crops end Harkcts 



Vol. 58, Uo 



Greece is att er.pt ing to increase cotton production by maintaining 
prices at favorable levels and restricting imports. The 53>000-bale 
crop in l^k&i however, is far below the 1953-39 average of 76,000 bales 
annually. Imports have been restricted as a matter of Government policy 
in order both to save foreign exchange and to insure full utilization of 
the domestic crop and payment of a fair price to farmers. Cotton mills, 
in order to be eligible for the issuance of import licenses, are required 
by law to purchase 30 percent of the domestic crop by the end of November 
another I4O percent in December, January, and February, and the final 30 
percent between March 1 and l.,ay 31« 

The Greek Government has not established a farm "security" price 
for cotton as for other principal crops but by restricting imports 
maintains prices at favorable levels. Prices paid to farmers are now 
relatively higher than those of most other crops. These favorable 
prices, in addition to a decline in acreage normally sown to winter 
grains and a good demand for cotton seed, should encourage farmers to 
make greater efforts to increase their cotton acreage this year. 

The outlook for increased consumption is uncertain and depends 
on the possibility of increasing the purchasing power of the Greek people 

There are considerable stocks of cotton goods on hand in factories . 
and shops, and it seems doubtful that ootton consumption by spinning mill 
will increase in this crop year. 

The long-range outlook for increased cotton cultivation in Greece 
is very favorable and may reach the Government goal of 375*000 acres 
by 1953* This is over three times the lQl+8 area and above the prewar 
peak of 205,000 acres planted in 1937* 

The Government is riving much attention to increasing yields by' 
bringing a larger percentage of cotton acreage under irrigation, by 
distributing and otherwise encouraging the use of improved and more 
productive varieties of seeds, by controlling insect pests, and by 
modernizing ginning facilities. 

Present plans for construction of the principal dams and canals 
needed for irrigation of cotton and other crops are based on expected 
financing by the Greek Government with E.C.A. aid. The farmers are 
being encouraged to organize themselves or make use of existing 
cooperatives for such purposes as •undertaking construction projects and 
financing necessary expenditures. In several areas these programs 
have already been put into action and irrigation projects have been 
started. 

All of these factors ana the fact that cotton provides the fanner 
with a relatively satisfactory income combine to make an encouraging 
long-range outlook for cotton cultivation in Greece. 



April 25, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



396 



JUTE SUPPLY 
COKTIFUES SCARCE 

The 5-billion pound jute crop (according to the latest official 
estiirate) that was produced in India and Pakistan in 1.948 is 3^0 million 
pounds less than the prewar (1935"39) average of 3*4 billion pounds, and 
far below the peak crop of 5-3 billion pounds produced in 1940» 
reduced output in 1948 is. due to damage by high water both in India and 
Pakistan. Some of the lower areas reported as much as 25 percent loss. 
Losses occurred not only in reduced quantity but in a lower quality of 
the fiber. 



JUTE: Area and production in India and Pakistan, 
average 1935*39 ^° calendar year 1948 



Calendar 
years 


Area ■ 


Production 
1/ 




Calendar 
years 


• Area. 


production 

1/ 




1,000 
acres 


Million 
pounds 






iToo'cT 7 " 

acres 


Million 
pounds 


Average : 

1935-39... 
(Year) 1940. 

1941-45... 
1946-48... 


2,856.4 

5,663.8 
2,531.6 
2,421.2 


3,382.6 
5,2?'4.6 
2,858.7 
2,392.3 




Years; 

1946 

1947 

1948 


1,910.9 
2,710.5 
2,642«2 


2,259.1 
3,415.4 
3,002.3 



l/ Includes imports from Nepal. 



Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Compiled from official all- 
India forecasts published by the Director of Agriculture, Bengal. 

Although production reached 3. 4 million pounds in 1947 "the 4 preced- 
ing crops had been so small that they averaged only 2.7 million pounds 
annually. Wartime production (average 19^-4-1 -^4-5 ) was less than 2.9 million 
pounds annually, or only about 85 percent of the prewar average, and 
postwar production has averaged only 86 percent of the prewar figure. 
Production In 1949 has been forecast by trade sources in India at about 
2.Ll million pounds in Pakistan and O.04 million in India, making a total 
of about 3.24 million pounds from the combined areas, 

India and Pakistan together produce most of the world supply of 
raw jute, but of the 2 countries Pakistan in 1948 had 71 percent of the 
combined area and 73 percent of the combined production. Since the 
separation of the 2 countries, the Government of India lias succeeded in 
increasing production In its area. The 1948 crop was a third greater 
than the I9I4.6 production. The 1948 crop in Pakistan is nearly a third 
larger than the small crop of 1946 but, due largely to floods, it is 
20 percent smaller than the 1947 crop. 



397 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 58, Ko. 17 



JUTE: Area and production in India and Pakistan, 
I9I+6 to 191+8 



Area and production 

Area (thousand acres): 
India 1/' 


191+6 

1,573.6 
537.3 
1,910*9 


191+7 


191+8 


2,053.7 
651.8 

2,710*$" ~: 


1,876.6 

765.6 

~ 2,61+2*2 


Pakistan as percent of 

Production (million 
sounds ) s 
Pakistan « 


71 Q 

1,651.2 
607.9 


/ U . U 

2,737.0 
678.1+ 


71 n 

fl.U 

2) 191. 7 
810.6 


Total 

Pakistan as percent of 


2,259.1 


_5 jri.5 .i7~ _ 




73.1 


80.1 


73.0 


1/ Includes imports from IJepal which were estimated at r 


.bout 80 million 



pounds in I9I46, more than I5 in I'yhl , *-ead nearly 18 in I9I+8 • 

Office of Foreign Agricultural delations. ^Compiled from official all- 
India forecasts published by the Director of Agriculture, Bengal. 

The largast consumers of raw jute arc the jute goods manufacturing 
mills in Calcutta, By agreement Pakistan will deliver 2 million pounds 
to those mills curing the 19l+8-l r 9 crop year against India's agreement to 
parchas-j that amount • At the end of December 1^1+3 the mills reported 
they had purchased 75 percent of the amount agreed upon but deliveries 
were lagging considerably behind schedule. 

Stocks of raw jute in Calcutta were reported to be at the low 
figure of 600 million pounds at the end of March I9I1-8 compared with 
790 million at the corresponding time in I9I+7 . During the third quarter 
of 1948 stocks dropped to only 1+12 million pounds. Although 719*6 
million pounds were reported on hand at the end of December, the supply 
was still quite low'* 

Exports of raw jute from Calcutta in the last quarter of lQl+3 were 
only 30.1+ million pounds, compared with 219.2 million and 177*1+ million 
in the corresponding periods of I9I+7 and I9I+6, respectively. Exports 
from Chittagong, a Pakistan port, were estimated at 93«2 million pounds 
in the last quarter of I9I+8. Corresponding data for preceding years 
are not available, but a total of J05 .0 million pounds was exported 
during the your ended March Jl , 191+8. 

Production of manufactured jute goods in India has held up well 
compared with what raw jute supplies might indicate. Output during the 
last quarter of 191+3 amounted to 3,537 million pounds, compared with 



April 25; 19^9 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



398 



3,508 and 2,95° million pounds during the corresponding quarters of 1947 
and 1946, respectively. Output during the 1947*48 jute year totaled 
13,825 million pounds, 12,858 millidn pounds in i^k6-kj, and 14,493 mill! 
pounds in 1945*46. 

Because of the continued short supply and low mill stocks of raw 
jute, sealing of 12-1/2 percent of the hessian looms in India has been 
under consideration, but current unofficial reports in the United States 
indicate that the Government of India has rejected the proposal at least 
for the present time. 

TROPICAL PRODUCTS 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC'S 1948 CACAO EXPORTS 
AND 1948-49 PRODUCTION LOWER 

The Dominican Republic's cacao exports of 56,705,000 pounds for the 
1948 calendar year show a decline of about lU percent from the record 
I9I+7 exports of 66,13^,000 pounds but were still slightly higher than 
the 1935-39 annual average of 5!;, 0h8, 000 pounds. The total 1948-49 
cacao production in the Dominican Republic is now estimated at about 60 
million pounds, slightly less than the 1947*48 production of 62 million 
pounds but still above the annual average of 54 million pounds for the 
period 1935*39* according to the American embassy in Ciadad Trujillo. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Exports of cacao beans in I9I4.8, 
with comparisons 



Destination 


: Average 


. 19U6 


1947 


1948 y 




1 . 1,000 

: pounds 


1,000 
pounds 


. 1,000 

pounds 


1,000 

pounds 


Unit ed Stat e s 

Other Western Hemisphere.. 


50,688 


46,394 
7,736 

- Q2k- 
9k 
55, W 


I 63,926 

879 • 
1,329 

66,13!+ 


53,506 
; , 128 ' 
3,071 

' 56,705 



1/ Preliminary. 



SOURCE: Dominican Customs Receivership, Exportacion de la Republica 
Dominica , and U.S. Foreign Service reports. 

About 94 percent of the Dominican Republic's 1948 exports went to 
the United States and practically all of the balance to the Netherlands. 
In the prewar period 1935-39, the United States also took 94 percent of 
the cacao exported from the Dominican Republic, and Germany took most of 
the balance. 



399 



For sign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 58, No. 17 



Important changes were effected in the Dominican Cacao industry 
in 19ia8. A |>2.5-million dollar chocolate processing plant was completed 
at Puerto Plata early in the year. The plant was purchased by the 
Dominican Government in March 19^8 and the manufacture of chocolate for 
export oegan later in the year, The Dominican Government hopes that 
most of the cacao beans produced in the country can be processed into 
chocoM-te for expert, and that total returns to the country will be 
increased substantially* Production and export of chocolate in 1^1$ has 
not been very encouraging. A large export outlet did not develop as 
importers tended to prefer beans rather than chocolate. Further 
difficulties were encountered as a result of price declines between the 
time beans were purchased and chocolate was processed for export. Under 
these conditions, profits on exports of chocolate were limited. 

Export duties on cacao beans were increased substantially in March 
and again in December 1948. Increases were for the purpose of obtaining 
additional revenue and resulted in lower prices to growers, prices paid 
to growers reached a jeah of 33 cents a pound in February lyii-Qj hut 
dropped in March following enactment of higher export duties. They 
continued to decline during the year partly as a result of lever world 
prices for cacao beans and readied a low of 10 1/2 cents per pound in 
December following the second increase in expert duties. 

MEXICAN 19U8 COFFEE EXPORTS LOVJERj 
I9I18-I4.9 PRODUCTION HIGHER 

Mexico's 19^4-8 calendar year exports of 520,661 bags of green coffee 
fell 5 percent below the 19U? exports of 547*805 bags and 13 percent 
below the 1935-39 prewar annual average of 599 * 210 bags. Estiiratys of 
the 19kQ-k9 total coffee production range from 1,000,000 to 1,108,000 
bags, as compared with the lyl+J-J+il production of 923*000 bags ana the 
1935-39 annual average of 959*000 bags, according to the American Embassy 
in Mexico. 

Total 19'it-8 exports of green coffee from Mexico" were' the lowest for 
any calendar year since l^t\2» The United States received more than 99 
percent of Mexican coffee exports in 1 9)4.8 •' The most important European 
buyers we're the Netherlands, Italy, Sweden, and Belgium. In the 'prewar 
years, 1935 "39* ' 62 percent of Mexican coffee' exports were' to' the United 
States and yo percent to Europe, principally Germany. 

V» r eather conditions in the l'ji\.Q-l^} season were excellent in Mexico's 
coffee producing districts. A bumper 1948-49 coffee crop is being 
harvested and the exportable surplus is forecast at between 685*000 and 
750,000 bags. The large 194&-49 crop is due to the unusually favorable 
season, as in general yields per coffee tree have been declining steadily 
since 1936* Quality of coffee has also dropped. To correct this 
situation the Ministries *£ National Economy and Agriculture recently 
announced a program to create a National Coffee Institute which will 
concentrate on promoting and improving coffee production in Mexico. 



April 25; 19^9 



x^oreign Crops and Markets 



MEXICO: Exports of green coffee in l'9l|8, with comparisons 



Destination 


Average 


! 19I46 


X9h7 1/ 


19kB 1/ 




Bags 


: Bags 


Bags 


Bags 


United States. 


369,4.06 
228,747 
1,057. 
599,210 


:* 526,S25 
: 21,065 

: 555,128 


523,i;lU 
19,315 
76_ 

5^7 ,305 


513,807 
1,821 






Total , 


55 , , 

520,661 


1/ Preliminary. 



SOURCE: Annuario Estadistico dol Commercio Kxberior and U.S. Foreign 
Service Reports. 

TOBACCO 



BRAZIL'S TOBACCO 
EXPORTS DECLINE 

Brazil's exports of leaf tobacco in I948 totaled 54«8 million pounds, 
or about 34 percent less than the 32.9 million pounds exported in 19-4-7, 
according to the American Consulate in Porto Alegre. The I9U8 experts 
were 53 percent below the record expox-ts of 116.6 million pounds in I946 
and 23 percent below the prewar, 1935-39, annual average exports of 71.0 
million pounds. 

During I948 the most important outlets for Brazilian leaf were 
Argentina, Spain, and the Netherlands. These countries tool: lU.2 million 
pounds, 12*7 million pounds and 9«1 million pounds, respectively. Germany s 
the most important prewar outlet for Brazilian leaf, entered the market 
for the first time since I94O and took 3*9 million pounds. This compares 
with prewar, 1935-39, average annual exports to Germany of 30»4 million 
pounds. Other countrie s. taking. Brazilian leaf in 1948 include Uruguay, 
Belgium and Luxembourg, Denmark, Switzerland, and France. 

- BRAZIL: Exports of leaf tobacco, I948 with comparisons 



Country of Destination 



: Average 
: 1935-39 



Argentina , 

Uruguay. 

Belgium and Luxembourg. 

Denmark. 

France , 

Gerirany 

Netherlands . , 

Spain , 

Swit zerland , 

Other Countries........ 



I, 000 

pounds 

II, 037 
2,394. 
l,44l 

1/ 
1,630 
30,376 
13,2U7 

1/ 

1/ 
57851 



Total...". 

1/ Included in "Other Count 
Source: Brazilian Federal 



: 71,026 



1946 



1, 000- 
pound s 

3,704 
2,180 
4,764 
8,510 
23,869 

12,906 
33,422 
7,253 
9,978 



116,586 



19-47 



1,000 

pounds 

10,086 
2,022 
6,122 
3,415 

14,905 

10,093 
17,017 
5,362 

13,840 



860 



1,000 
pounds 

14,151 
2,1+85 
1,206 

3,909 
L.83 
3,944 

9,lU0 
12,718 
2, 806 

3,947 



54,789 



rie s , " 

Ministry of Finance, 



hoi 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 58, No. I? 



FRANCE'S TOBACCO ACREAGE AM) 
PRODUCT I Oil; IMPORTS REDUCED 

France ts I946 tobacco crop is estimated at about 9 percent below 
the record 1947 crop, according to the American Embassy in Paris, The 
area planted to tobacco in 1943 was about 11 percent below 1947* ~ ou t 
the I948 yield per acre was larger. Leaf imports in I948 were sharply 
reduced, being 59 percent, below 1947 • • - 

The I9J4S tobacco crop, which is no\\ r being, delivered to the French 
Government Monopoly, is estimated at iO$«A million pounds, farm sales 
weight, compared with the record 19-1-7 crop of 115»1 million pounds and 
bhe prewar, 193 0- 39, annual average of 72.2 million pounds. The 
reduction in the I946 crop was due to a decrease in acreage which. 
apparently occurred from the elimination of premium prices formerly . 
paid to growers who maintained or increased production. 

The area planted to tcbo.cco in 1948 is placed at 6i|, 090 acres, 
compared with 71/955 acres in I9I4.7 and an annual average of 1;2,500 
acres in the 1930-39 period. The 1948 yield per acre of 1,637 pounds 
was the largest in several years and. was primarily due to very favorable 
weather during the growing season. 



FRAIICE: Area, yield per acre and production of tobacco, 
I9I4.8 with comparisons 

. . Yield i 

YEAR • ■ : Area ■ : p$r : Production 

: : acre 

: 1,000 : : ,1,000 

: acrjs : Pounds : pounds 

Average : : : 

1930-39. : 42. 5 : 1,695 : 72,216 

1946 : 60.7 : 1,1+61 : 89,932 

1947... : . 72.0 - 1,597 - : 115,062 

19kC'l/.. : 64.I ' :• 1,637 ■ • :• 104,-939 - 



l/ Preliminary. 

Source: French ''Tobacco Monopoly. " ' ' ' 

Leaf . imports in 1 9I4S totaled 26.1 million pounds/ compared with 
68.5 million pounds I in 1947 and an* annual' average of ' 81,4' million 
pounds in. the prewar, 1930-39, period. ''Algeria supplied* 10.5' million 
pounds, or about 37 percent of France's leaf imports' in' 1943. Other 
countries supplying substantial quantities of leaf in I94O" include 
Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Brazil and Colombia,. Imports' from the .United 
States are reported at less than 1#0 million pounds in 1948, compared 



April 25, 191+9 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



U02 



with 13*6 million pounds in 19^7 arL d an annual prewar average of 29«7 
million pounds in the 1930-39 period. 

COSTA RICA'S TOBACCO PRODUCTION 
LARGER; IMPORTS DECLINE 

Costa Rioa f s 19I+8-I+9 tobacco production increased and 19^8 tobacco 
imports declined from the previous year's levels, according to the 
American Embassy in San Jose. The decline in imports was due to 
Government restrictions on the use of foreign exchange for the purchase 
of tobacco, and this situation probably helped to . stimulate domestic 
production. 

The country's 191+8-1+9 tobacco harvest is estimated at 2.8 million 
pounds, compared with about 2.5 million pounds in I9I+7.-48 and an 
annual average of about 1.7 million pounds during. the preceding 5-y ea r 
period, 191+2-1+3 through I9I+6-I+7. ^bout 99 percent of the 1^1+8-1+9 crop 
was . suncured. leaf and about 1 percent flue-cured. This is the first 
year that flue-cured toba.cco has been grown commercially in Costa Rica.. 

Leaf imports totaled 77*^00 pounds in 19-1+3, compared with 9U>900 
pounds in 191+7 anQ an annual average of 122,800 pounds during the pre- 
ceding 5-y ear period, 191+2-1-+6. A total of 70>600 pounds, or about 91 
percent of the I9I+8 leaf imports were of United States origin. The 
remaining 7>00P pounds came from the Eastern Mediterranean area. 

The country's I9I+8 cigarette imports totaled about 5U»9 million 
pieces, compared with about 68.0 million pieces in 19U7 ana an annual 
average of about ^0*0 million pieces during the preceding 5-y ea r period. 
Practically all I9I+8 cigarette imports' were from the United States. 

• FRUITS, VEGETA BLES AND NUTS 

APPLE AND PEAR CROPS 
HIGHER IN ARGENTINA 

The first indicated production of the I9I+8-I+9 crop of apples and 
pears in Argentina is placed at 8.9 and 5*1 million boxes, respectively. 
The estimated production of 8.9 million is a little more than double 
last year's crop of l+.l;. million and will be the largest crop on record. 
The pear crop of 5»1 million is percent above the previous year's crop 
of 3*3 million and 109 percent above the prewar average of 2.1+ million. 
Production, stimulated by favorable growing conditions in the irrigated 
district of the Rio "Negro Neuquen Valleys, is estimated at 9.3 million 
boxes of apples and pears almost 1+ times as much as was produced during 
the previous season. 

Fruit from Argentina will be exported principally to Venezuela 
and Belgium and a limited amount to the United States.* 



J_j_03 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, No. 17 



Production of apples and pears in Argentina 
19lj,64|8 





ADQles 


Pears • 


ZONE 


19U6-1+7 


19U7-U8 


19U6-U9 


' 1946-47 


1947-1+8 


19I+8-I+9 






1,000 boxes 








Rio Negro 
Neuquen . . . 

Buenos Aires 
Santa Fe . . 

Merdoza, San 


3/927 
1,693 

1,352 
201 


1,167 

1,658 
1,208 


6,013 
1,754 

802 


d., 1 10 

1,448 

\, . 1+12 
147 


1,^42 
1,1+98 
1+16 
170 


3,? J / 
1,002 
1+01 
201 




361 


375 


Total 


7,173 


4,394 


8,944 


: 4,725 


3,327 


5,m 



Apple and pear shipments through April 1+ from Argentina to the United 
States are as follows: apples $00 boxes, pears 252,819 boxes, and grapes 
2J4, 015 boxes.' In addition approximately ' 50, 000 boxes of pears and a 
few boxes of apples are under treatment for later shipment, 

APPLE CROP LARGER 
IN SWITZERLAND 

The I9I4-8 apple crop in Switzerland has been revised and is now 
indicated to be 3°»3 million bushels, about the same as in I9I+6 but 74 
percent above the small crop of 17»5 million in 1947* The pear crop of 
9.7 million bushels is -1+2 percent below the 1947 crop of 16.8 million 
but slightly larger than the prewar crop. 

The apple and pear crops were damaged by scab called "tavelure" in 
Switzerland. In most of the orchards from 70 to 80 percent of the I9I+8 
crops were affected. 

The cherry crop now estimated at lf7,000 short tons is 32 percent 
below last year's crop of 69,000 but 88 percent 'above the 1935-39 
average of 25,000. Continuous rains in June and July damaged the cherry 
crop, resulting in much of it being used for distilling fruit alcohol. 
Plums estimated at 32,000 tons are about the same as in I9I4.6 and 1947, 
arid apricots at I)., 000 tons are 11 percent above last year's crop of 
3,600 tons. 

Switzerland exported 3.8 million bushels of apples and pears in 
1948, of which Germany and Belgium received 72 percent or 1 .1+ and 1.1 
million, respectively. 



April 25, I9I1.9 Foreign. Crops and Markets i;0[j. 

AUSTRALIAN 19^9 RAISIN AND 
CURRANT FORECAST LOITERED 

The 19'r9 preliminary forecast of raisin production in Australia has 
been lowered to 53*200 short tons compared with 70*100 tons in I9I+8 and 
50,500 tons in 1947 • The present forecast consists of 1+7*000 tons of 
Sultanas and 6,200 tons of Lexias* The forecast is 28 percent below the 
5-year ( lyl\2-l\6 ) average of 73*^00 tons and 25 percent below the 10-year 
( 1937---P) average of 71,100 tons. The currant forecast has been lowered 
to 20,200 tons compared with 19,300 tons in I9I+8 and 12,700 tons in 1947 • 
This is 9 percent below the 5-yeur ( 1942-ip ) average of 22,300 tons and 
12 percent below the 10-yej.r (1937-46) average of 22,900 bons. 

Early in the season it was anticipated a oetter-than-average crop 
would be produced. This was based on an anticipated shortage of gasoline 
for trucks which would take fresh grapes to wineries and would, therefore, 
direct grapes to drying. Late in February and early March heavy rains and 
high .humidity did considerable damage in the Murray Valley. Damage was 
partioularily bad at Eildura. Fortunately for growers in the area, most 
of the currants had been harvested. The davage was largely to Sultanas 
which were still being harvested. There was a small loss of Lexias, 

The heavy reduction in production will reduce the amount available 
for export to the United Kingdom, - Canada,' and Lew Zealand. These countries 
will find it. necessary to fill a larger percentage of their needs in other 
producing countries of the world; 

EXPORTS. OF PALM .OIL AND PA LM KER NELS —(Continued from Page 377) 

Exports of kernels from British Malaya in I 948 totaled 7,249 tons. 
Nearly one-fourth more than the quantity shipped in 1947, exports in 
1948 "were auout one-tenth less than the volume exported in prewar years. 

palm kernels exported from Indon esia in 19.48 totaled 10,850 tons. 
This was considerably more than the 1,758 tons shipped cut in 1947 bat 
was only about one-fourth as great as the average quantity exported in 
prewar years. 



This is one of a series of regularly scheduled reports on world agricultural 
production and trade prepared by tlu Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations 
Committee on Foreign Crop and Livestock Statistics. For this report, the 
Committee was composed of Joseph A. Becker, Chairman, C. M. Purves, 
Olav F. Anderson, Regina H. Boyle, Helen Francis, Mary E. Long and 
John E. Hobbes. 



Foreign Crops and Market's 



Vol. 5.8, Mo. 17 



LATE N E >T S 



The I9I4.S-I4.9 cotton crop in Haiti suffered heavy damage from boll 
weevils and amounted to less than 6,000 bales (of 500 pounds gross) 
compared with 10,600 last year. Mill consumption (1 mill) in I9L0 
amounted to 800 bales and 200 to yOZ bales were consumed in making 
mattresses and other handicraft items. The mill is expected to consume 
1,700 bales in 19k9. Exports in I9I4.8 totaled 9,300 bales including 
3,600 to the United Kingdom, 3, *fiO to Belgium, 1,300 to France and 
1,100 to the Netherlands. Only about kOO bales remained in stock at 
the end of 19k8.